Ian doing a Site Survey

“We want wi-fi. Now what?”

I’ve been spending the past week at the annual Wireless LAN Professionals Conference in Phoenix. This is one of my favorite conferences along with the Church IT Network conference, because I get to spend a couple of days geeking out hard with a whole bunch of REALLY smart people. The amount of information I’ve stuffed into my brain since last Friday is a little bit, well, mind-blowing…

I spent the first 3 days getting my Ekahau Certified Survey Engineer credential. For those who are not familiar with the Wi-Fi side of my consulting practice, Ekahau Site Survey is a fantastic tool for developing predictive RF designs for wireless networks, allowing me to optimize the design before I ever pull any new cable or hang access points. One of the key points that’s been touched on frequently throughout the training and the conference is what was termed by one attendee as the “Sacred Ritual of the Gathering of Requirements”. It sounds silly, but this one step is probably the single most important part of the entire process of designing a wireless network.

In the church world (and in the business world), your mission statement is what informs everything you do. Every dollar you spend, every person you hire, every program you offer, should in some way support that mission focus in a clearly defined and measurable manner. A former boss (and current client) defines his IT department’s mission like this: “Our users’ mission is our mission.” This clearly laid out that in IT, we existed to help everyone else accomplish their mission, which in turn accomplished the organization’s mission.

I’ve had more than a few clients say initially that their requirement is “we want wi-fi”. My job as a consultant and an engineer is to flesh out just what exactly “wi-fi” means in your particular context, so that I can deliver a design and a network that will make you happy to write the check at the end of the process. I can’t expect a client to know what they want in terms of specific engineering elements relating to the design. If they did, I’m already redundant.


Photo: Mitch Dickey/@Badger_Fi

During the conference someone put up a whiteboard, with the following question:

“What are the top key questions to ask a client in order to develop a WLAN design or remediation?”

The board quickly filled up, and I’ll touch on a few really important ones here:

“What do you expect wi-fi to do for you? What problem does it solve?”

It was also stated as:

“What is your desired outcome? How does it support your business?”

This is one of the fundamental questions. It goes back to your mission statement. Another way of putting it is “How do you hope to use the wi-fi to support you mission?” What you hope to do with wi-fi will drive every single other design decision. The immediate follow-up question should be a series of “why?” questions to get to the root cause of why these outcomes are important to the business goals. You can learn an awful lot by asking “why?” over and over like a 4-year-old child trying to understand the world. This is critical for managing expectations and delivering what the client is paying you a large sum of money to do.

“What is your most critical device/application?”

“What is your least capable and most important device?”

“What other types of devices require wi-fi?”

“What type of devices do your guests typically have?”

It’s nice to have shiny new devices with the latest and greatest technology, but if the wi-fi has to work for everyone, your design has to assume the least capable device that’s important, and design for that. If you use a bunch of “vintage” Samsung Galaxy phones for barcode scanning or checking in children, then we need to make sure that the coverage will be adequate everywhere you need to use them, and that you select the proper spectrum to support those devices. For the guest network, having at least a rough idea of what mix of iOS and Android devices the guests bring into the facility can inform several design choices.

“What regulatory/policy constraints are there on the network?”

This is hugely important. Another mantra I’ve heard repeated often is, “‘Because you can’ is NOT a strategy!” If your network has specific privacy requirements such as PCI-DSS, HIPAA, any number of industry-specific policies, or even just organizational practices about guest hospitality, network access, etc., these also need to factor into the design and planning process.

I have one client whose organization is a church that is focused on a 5-star guest experience. What this translated to in terms of Wi-Fi is that they did not want to name the SSIDs with the standard “Guest” and “Staff” monikers that are common. The reasoning for this was that merely naming the private LAN SSID “Staff” would create in a guest’s mind that there are two classes of people, one of which may get better network performance because you’re one of the elect. It’s also a challenge when you have a lot of volunteers who perform staff-like functions and who need access to the LAN. Ultimately, we simply called this network “LAN”. Meaningful to the IT staff, and once the staff is connected to it, they no longer think about it. Something as simple as the SSID list presented by a wifi beacon is an important consideration in the overall guest experience.

“What is your budget?”

This one is so obvious it’s often overlooked. As engineers, we like to put shiny stuff into our designs. The reality is, most customers don’t have a bottomless pit of money, especially when they’re non-profits relying on donated funds. While I’d love to design a big fancy Ruckus or Aruba system everywhere I go, the reality is that it’s probably overkill for a lot of places, when a Ubiquiti or EnGenius system will meet all the requirements.

“What are the installation constraints?”

“Which of those constraints are negotiable? Which aren’t?”

Another obvious one that is overlooked. You need to know when the installation can happen (or can’t happen), or if there are rooms that are off-limits, potential mounting locations that are inaccessible. Areas that can’t support a lift, or areas that you simply can’t get cable to without major work. Aesthetics can be a significant factor for both AP selection and placement, wiring, and even configuration (such as turning off the LEDs). While one particular AP may be technically suited to a particular location, how it looks in the room may dictate the choice of something else.

“What is your relationship with your landlord/neighbors/facility manager like?”

I kid you not, this is a bigger factor than you might think. In an office building, being a good wifi neighbor is an important consideration. If the landlord is very picky about where and how communications infrastructure is installed outside the leased space (such as fiber runs through hallways, roof access, antennas outside the building, extra lease charges for technology access), you may encounter some challenges. If your facility manager is particular about damage, you need to factor that into the process as well. This likely also will come into play when you’re doing your site surveys and need access to some parts of the building.

There are a whole host of followup questions beyond these that focus on the more technical aspects of the requirements gathering, and your client may or may not have an answer:

“How many people does this need to support at one time?”

“Where are all these people located?”

“When are they in the building?”

“Where do you need coverage?”

“Where do you NOT need coverage?”

“What is your tolerance level for outages/downtime?”

… and many more that you will develop during this sacred requirements gathering ritual. Many of the technical aspects of the environment (existing RF, channel usage, airtime usage, interference source, etc) don’t need to be asked of the client, as you will find them during your initial site survey.

If you’re a wifi engineer, having these questions in your mind will help you develop a better design. If you’re the client, having answers to these questions available will help you get a better design.

What questions are important to your network? Sound off below!

Video Control Room

Automating Video Workflows With PowerShell

Linking today to some great content from another Ian (ProTip: get to know an Ian, we’re full of useful knowledge). Ian Morrish posts about automating a variety of methods of automating A/V equipment using PowerShell. Lots of useful stuff in here.

No Windows? No worries, you can install PowerShell on MacOS and Linux too.

I’ve put some feelers out to some of my streaming equipment vendors to find out what kind of automation hooks and APIs they support.

Meanwhile, Wowza has a REST API for both its Streaming Engine and Cloud products. Integrating this into PowerShell should be relatively straightforward. Any PowerShell wizards wanna take a stab at it?

Stay tuned.



Going Serverless: Office 365

Recently I just completed a project for a small church in Kansas. Several months ago, the senior pastor asked me for a quote on a Windows server to provide authentication as well as file and print share services. During the conversation, a few things became clear:

  1. Their desktop infrastructure was completely on Windows 10. Files were being kept locally or in a shared OneDrive account.
  2. The budget they had for this project was not going to allow for a proper server infrastructure with data protection, etc.
  3. This church already uses a web-based Church Management System, so they’re somewhat used to “the cloud” already as part of their workflows.

One of the key features provided by Windows 10 was the ability to use Office 365 as a login to your desktop (Windows 8 allowed it against a Microsoft Live account). Another is that for churches and other nonprofits, Office 365 is free of charge for the E2 plan.

I set about seeing how we could go completely serverless and provide access not only to the staff for shared documents, but also give access to key volunteer teams and church committees.

The first step was to make sure everybody was on Windows 10 Pro (we found a couple of machines running Windows 10 Home). Tech Soup gave us inexpensive access to licenses to get everyone up to Pro.

Then we needed to make sure the internet connection and internal networking at the site was sufficient to take their data to the cloud. We bumped up the internet speed and overhauled the internal network, replacing a couple of consumer-grade unmanaged switches and access points with a Ubiquiti UniFi solution for the firewall/router, network switch, and access points. This allows me and key church staff to remotely manage the network, as the UniFi controller operated on an Amazon Web Services EC2 instance (t2.micro). This new network also gave the church the ability to offer guest wifi access without compromising their office systems.

The next step was to join everyone to the Azure domain provided by Office 365. At this point, all e-mail was still on Google Apps, until we made the cutover.

Once we had login authentication in place, I set about building the file sharing infrastructure. OneDrive seemed to be the obvious solution, as they were already using a shared OneDrive For Business account.

One of OneDrive’s biggest challenges is that, like FedEx, it is actually several different products trying to behave as a single, seamless product. At this, OneDrive still misses the mark. The OneDrive brand consists of the following:

  • OneDrive Personal
  • OneDrive for Business
  • OneDrive for Business in Office 365 (a product formerly known as Groove)
  • Sharepoint Online

All the OneDrive for Business stuff is Sharepoint/Groove under the hood. If you’re not on Office 2016, you’ll want to make the upgrade, because getting the right ODB client in previous versions of Office is a nightmare. Once you get it sorted, it generally works. If you’ve got to pay full price for O365, I would recommend DropBox for Business as an alternative. But it’s hard to beat the price of Office 365 when you’re a small business.

It is very important to understand some of the limitations of OneDrive for Business versus other products like DropBox for Business. Your “personal” OneDrive for Business files can be shared with others by sending them a link, and they can download the file, but you can’t give other users permission to modify them and collaborate on a document. For this, you need to go back to the concept of shared folders, and ODB just doesn’t do this. This is where Sharepoint Online comes in to play.

Naturally, this being Sharepoint, it’s not the easiest thing in the world to set up. It’s powerful once you get it going, but I wasn’t able to simply drop all the shared files into a Sharepoint document library — There’s a 5000-file limit imposed by the software. Because the church’s shared files included a photo archive, there were WAY more than 5000 files in it.

Sharepoint is very picky about getting the right information architecture (IA) set up to begin with. Some things you can’t change after the fact, if you decide you got them wrong. Careful planning is a must.

What I ended up doing for this church is creating a single site collection for the whole organization, and several sites within that collection for each ministry/volunteer team. Each site in Sharepoint has 3 main security groups for objects within a site collection:

  • Visitors (Read-Only)
  • Members (Read/Write)
  • Owners (Read/Write/Admin)

In Office 365, much as it is with on-premises, you’re much better off creating your security groups outside of Sharepoint and then adding those groups to the security groups that are created within Sharepoint. So in this case, I created a “Worship Production” team, added the team members to the group, and then added that group to the Worship Site Owners group in Sharepoint. The Staff group was added to all the Owners groups, and the visitors group was left empty in most cases. This makes group membership administration substantially easier for the on-site admin who will be handling user accounts most of the time. It’s tedious to set up, but once it’s going, it’s smooth sailing.

Once the security permissions were set up for the various team sites, I went into the existing flat document repository and began moving files to the Sharepoint document libraries. The easiest way to do this is to go to the library in Sharepoint, and click the “Sync” button, which then syncs them to a local folder on the computer, much like OneDrive (although it’s listed as Sharepoint). There is no limit to how many folders you can sync to the local machine (well, there probably is, but for all practical purposes, there isn’t). From there it’s a matter of drag and drop. For the photos repository, I created a separate document library in the main site, and told Sharepoint it was a photo library. This gives the user some basic Digital Asset Management capabilities such as adding tags and other metadata to each picture in the library.

So far, it’s going well, and the staff enjoys having access to their Sharepoint libraries as well as Microsoft Office on their mobile devices (iOS and Android). Being able to work from anywhere also gives this church some easy business continuity should a disaster befall the facility — all they have to do is relocate to the local café that has net access, and they can continue their ministry work. Their data has now been decoupled from their facility. I have encountered dozens of churches over the years whose idea of data backup is either “what backup?” or a hard drive sitting next to the computer 24×7, which is of no use if the building burns to the ground or is spontaneously relocated to adjacent counties by a tornado. The staff doesn’t have to worry about the intricacies of running Exchange or Sharepoint on Windows Small Business Server/Essentials. Everything is a web-based administrative panel, and support from Microsoft is excellent in case there’s trouble.

If you’re interested in how to take your church or small business serverless, contact me and I’ll come up with a custom solution.

Haiti Internet

Mobile Internet In Haiti, Part 2

A while back, I posted about getting mobile Internet in Haiti. As technology changes rapidly, especially when it comes to Haitian internet access, I figured I’d post an update, having just returned from there in late February.

If you have a GSM-capable US phone (most Samsung Galaxy devices use software-defined radios and can speak CDMA or GSM fluently, simply by switching an option in the software), you’ll need to unlock it for international use:

Sprint: Contact Sprint Customer Service while still in the US and ask them for an international unlock. As long as your account has been active for more than 60 days, this should be no problem. They’ll walk you through the UICC unlock process. It helps to be on the Sprint network while this unlock happens, but it can also happen over Wi-Fi if you’re already out of the country.

Verizon: Verizon generally does not lock their phones. You may want to check with Verizon to make sure yours is unlocked. See item #18 in their Global Roaming FAQ.

AT&T: If your phone is under contract with AT&T or is an iPhone, you’re pretty much out of luck. AT&T is so terrified of losing their customers that they will only unlock the phone if you buy out your installment contract or pay an ETF. The good news is that most cell phone repair shops know the unlock codes and will unlock them for you for a small fee. (This is a tip I got from the manager of a local AT&T store who thinks corporate policy on unlocking for international use is dumb). If your phone is out of contract, simply go to https://www.att.com/deviceunlock and fill out the form. There is nobody at AT&T you can talk to about this, nor can the store personnel help you. If the process fails, then you’re simply out of luck, and should consider choosing a more customer-friendly carrier next time.

T-Mobile: No idea. I don’t know anyone who has a T-Mobile device. I expect their policy is probably very similar to AT&T.

Once you get to Haiti, you can stop at either the Digicel or Natcom shops just outside customs at the airport in Port-Au-Prince. (I would expect that there’s a similar setup at Cap-Haitien.) Natcom will load you up with 5GB of data and some voice minutes for 1000 Gdes ($25 US). I don’t know what Digicel’s current pricing is, but I expect it’s comparable. If you’re going to be out in the provinces, Natcom seems to have a better network than Digicel. If you’re staying in and around Port-Au-Prince, either network should work fine for you as both carriers have HSPA+ networks. I don’t know what the Natcom coverage situation is like on La Gonâve, but Digicel has EDGE coverage on most of the island, and HSPA/+ around Anse-a-Galets.

The staff at the Natcom shop had no trouble setting up my Galaxy S4, and in 15 minutes I walked out of there on the Haitian network. Using it as a hotspot was merely a matter of turning it on, and didn’t require any further configuration. Internet speeds in PAP average in the 2-3Mbps range.

It should be noted here that with both carriers, all Facebook traffic is free and doesn’t count toward your data plan usage. This is a pretty cool deal. My understanding is that Facebook located an edge node within Haiti to reduce transit off-island, and free access to the growing smartphone population in Haiti was part of the deal.

On a similar vein, Google also seems to be getting better presence in Haiti, and I’m told they too have edge nodes located in-country. Their maps product actually has pretty good data in PAP, although directions are still iffy as the addressing system there is a little tricky, and there aren’t necessarily names attached to many of the minor streets. It’s pretty good at figuring out where you are though. I wonder how soon they’ll get a Street View rig down there.

When you leave, your SIM will still be usable for 90 days, after which it will expire and no longer function on the network. There is currently excellent public wifi at the PAP airport, so handing your SIM off to one of your Haitian hosts is probably your best bet, as they can get some additional usage out of whatever unused data/minutes are left on it.

(I also discovered that on my Galaxy S4, GPS didn’t work unless there was a SIM in the slot)


Mobile Voice in Haiti

As a follow-on to my previous post about getting mobile internet, here’s one about getting voice service on your US phone (at least if you have a Sprint phone).

I have a Samsung Galaxy S4 on Sprint. Sprint’s CDMA voice network is incompatible with the GSM networks in most of the rest of the world, but recent Samsung Galaxy devices (at least the S3 and S4, and other devices of the same generation/platform) use a software-defined radio that can be made to speak GSM or CDMA at will, with a simple settings change. CDMA doesn’t require a SIM but LTE and GSM do, so the Galaxy is a de facto international phone.

Sprint lets you do international roaming calls for $2/min, which is absurdly high. It’s much better to get a SIM from a local carrier and use that. Making it do this is relatively simple. If your account is in good standing, a simple phone call to Sprint will unlock your phone for using other SIMs (and before you try to do this for a GSM carrier in the US, it explicitly does NOT work on AT&T or T-Mobile). This unlock process does require a data connection (mobile or Wi-Fi) for the phone to receive the unlock signal. After doing that, there’s a simple process that the Sprint rep will give you over the phone to complete the process.

Once that’s done (took me about 5 minutes on the phone – which I did via Skype from Haiti!), all you have to do is go find a local SIM (and in the case of the Galaxy, trim it down to size), pop it in the phone, switch it over to GSM in the Mobile Networks settings, pick your carrier, and off you go.

I’ll add screenshots just as soon as I can make the phone do them. The normal S4 tricks aren’t working.


Mobile Internet in Haiti

Note: Be sure to read my March 2015 update about this…

I’m back down in Haiti, as some of you already know, working on some of the wireless networks linking the different sites of the Église Méthodiste d’Haïti (EMH), which is the Haitian Methodist Church. Knowing that I was coming into an environment where the internet connection was not functioning properly, and that I was likely going to need internet access for troubleshooting, I armed myself with a 3G GSM hotspot that I picked up on eBay.

After parting with about 50 bucks (plus another 15 for a charger and 2 spare batteries), the Huawei E583C unit showed up via USPS on my doorstep 4 days later bearing a postmark from Hong Kong (color me impressed, I can’t even get postcards from Toronto that quickly!)

20131125_150332I opened it up and inside was a “T-Mobile Wireless Pointer” from the UK division of T-Mobile. I popped on down to the local T-Mobile store and get a SIM for testing, and fired it up. After much futzing around trying to get it to speak 3G to the network without any success, I go back to T-Mobile and pick a tech’s brains. Turns out this one operates on the 800/1800/1900 band, which T-Mobile has phased out 3G on to make room for more LTE. Meanwhile, Jay was in Haiti, so I asked him to pick up a NatCom SIM and bring it home with him.

I’ll pause briefly here to talk a bit about mobile in Haiti. There are two major players, Digicel (which has a thing for island nations all over the world) and NatCom, which is formed out of what was left of the national telephone company (Teleco) and the Vietnamese national telecom (VietTel) that bought up a 70% interest in Teleco not long after the earthquake. What little copper telecom infrastructure existed in the country has long since been destroyed by a number of different Screen Shot 2013-11-25 at 3.20.19 PMmeans, both natural and human. Since the earthquake, NatCom has been building out a LOT of fiber. Digicel operates the only direct fiber link out of the country to Columbus Networks‘ Fibralink fiber network that links the Caribbean up to the rest of the world. The other way out of Haiti to the internet is via microwave backhaul to the Dominican Republic which has 2 landings of the ARCOS fiber ring.

In the nearly 4 years since the quake, mobile internet in Haiti has gone nuts. It’s now quite reliable, and surprisingly cheap if you know how to do it. Monthly postpaid plans for data cost about a quarter what they do in the US – a 10GB plan on digicel will set you back 1000 HTG (about 25 bucks). The same plan on Verizon in the US by comparison is about $100! Digicel offers current-generation Android phones like the S4 (but be prepared to part with full unsubsidized price for it), and Apple recently started making unlocked SIM-less iPhones available on its own store. The smartphone revolution is coming to Haiti, and it’s going to be interesting to watch. There was someone at church on sunday using an iPad, and it wasn’t someone from our team.

When I got down to Haiti and put the SIM Jay obtained for me into the hotspot (erm, “Pointer”… can any Brits enlighten me as to the origin of that term?), and getting no joy. Realizing that the zillion config changes I’d made to try and get it to work on T-Mobile’s network were probably interfering, I hit the factory reset button, and as soon as it rebooted, it was speaking 3G on Natcom’s network. It was that easy.

Next step was to load up some funds on the card, since it was a basic card that came empty of funds. Normally you can do this from the phone, but since this was a hotspot, I didn’t have the ability to dial numbers (although the Huawei firmware does allow you to SMS, which turned out to be a critical component). Natcom partners with a third party called EzeTop which allows you to reload phone cards online (yours or anyone else’s). So I dropped 10 bucks onto it (which translates to 392 HTG, a fairly lousy exchange rate) plus a penny per 10 Goudes as a transaction fee, and off I go. No sign anywhere of what the per-MB cost is. NatCom’s website isn’t particularly helpful in that regard (I later find out that it’s 1.9HTG/MB, about 4 cents.)

Now that I had mobile internet, I fired up the iPad and did some testing on the drive to Petit-Goave, and was getting quite reasonable speeds around 1.5-2Mbps in both directions, very much capable of posting pictures to facebook and whatnot.

Once we got to the guest house where we were staying, we discovered that the wifi there was indeed out of service. I put the hotspot to good use downloading information I was going to need to fix it. In very short order, net access ceases, and I get a screen from NatCom saying that my card is empty, and provides a helpful list of plans and how to activate them. I then go find our hostess and borrow her laptop and internet access to load up some more funds on the card, and then try to activate one of the listed plans. It tells me I can’t do that because I have the wrong type of card.

Then, disaster. Within a matter of little more than an hour, 20 bucks worth of data on the card had vanished. After some digging, I discovered that my good buddy CrashPlan had stabbed me in the back and decided to start a big backup. I killed CrashPlan and reloaded the card (this is getting expensive, and I’m still not entirely sure how much data I’m burning through, especially now that the team is sharing in the internet joy — and the cost!)

Now that I’m back online, I start digging around the NatCom site again to figure out what plans I can access through the SIM I already have. Turns out that they have slightly different SIMs and plans for laptop/USB modems and for mobile phones. I had the latter, a “Nat-Mango” card, which can be had from any street vendor for 25 HTG. I finally found the list of mobile internet plans for the phones, and the correct number to SMS the plan change to. So I send off the text, only to get back “You don’t

Screen Shot 2013-11-05 at 8.03.55 AM

have enough funds for this plan”. I keep moving down the list until even the cheapest one kicks back the message… Uh-oh, I’m running on fumes again. Just as I go to top it up again, it shuts off. Fortunately, one of our Haitian team members had data on his Digicel phone, and I was able to get the account charged up, and switched over to the “Unlimited” plan. Unlimited in this case means 3.5GB at max HSPA+ speeds, then you’re rate-limited to 3.5 Mbps after that. Given that I never saw 3Mbps anywhere, this isn’t really a huge hindrance (that may be a factor of the device more than the network, too). By the time the week was out, our team had gobbled up nearly 25 gigabytes of data through the device.

So, in short, mobile internet from local carriers in Haiti is reliable and cheap (if you know the trick to not paying out the nose per MB), and can be done on a fairly inexpensive piece of hardware. If you’re so inclined, you can also get USB sticks from NatCom for about 1500 HTG. My next step is going to be to see if a device from Cradlepoint can handle the Natcom USB sticks, since they don’t have such a tight limitation on clients.

Windows Updates to go… not so much?

I posted a few weeks ago about bringing a WSUS machine down to Haiti as a sort of proxy – unfortunately, this project turned out to be a bust.

Conceptually, it worked. Machines were getting updates, and everything was great… until it started blowing out the CMOS settings and bluescreening a couple times a day. I suspect it’s probably power-related, but in any case, it was far from stable enough to leave unattended.

Windows Updates, To Go!

When I leave for my trip to Haiti in a few weeks, one of the things I’ll be doing is bringing multiple computers up to current patches. There are a few ways to do that:

One is to bring some sort of removable media (optical or flash stick) down and apply them manually. The problem with this is that once I leave, the machines stay in their current state until the next geek can come down and apply the next batch of patches. Downloading patches for multiple machines over developing-world internet connections can easily run into daily bandwidth caps, and Windows Update doesn’t cache very well through a normal proxy server such as Squid.

Another is to use Windows Server Update Services (WSUS). I initially considered setting up a Windows Server VM on my laptop, syncing up the updates stateside and temporarily configuring the machines down there to pull from my impromptu update server. Then I got the idea that a lightweight appliance-type server that lived down there permanently would be a useful solution that would download the patches once and distribute them over the LAN. Since we’re planning on using Microsoft Security Essentials for anti-malware, this solves the problem of definition updates. Daily patch sync would happen in the wee hours of the morning when the oversubscribed connections in Haiti are generally pretty clear.

I rummaged around the office and found a Dell FX160 thin client that we got as a demo unit from Dell (I have a number of blog posts on the topic of this device). It has been gathering dust for some time as it’s hobbled with a 1GB SATA flash disk and limited RAM. After checking on hardware requirements for both Windows Server and WSUS, I went out and picked up a 120GB SSD and a pair of 2GB RAM sticks and put them in. The choice of an SSD wasn’t so much for performance reasons (although it can’t hurt), but for the machine to be entirely solid-state. It’s going to live in a fairly harsh environment where mechanical failures are likely.

Once I got the hardware put together, I hooked up a USB optical drive and loaded Windows Server 2003 R2, and then installed WSUS and performed an update sync. The whole process went mostly smoothly.

Here are a few of the gotchas in installing Windows 2003 on an FX160 thin client, a job it was NEVER meant to do:

  • SATA controller needs to be in ATA mode. If it’s in AHCI mode, Windows 2003 will not recognize the disk.
  • When using a storage device that the BIOS recognizes as a hard drive, it expects to see a fan plugged into the motherboard. This fan is part of the hard drive bracket kit (Dell P/N H224H). When a fan is not detected, each boot will require a manual intervention during POST to press F1.
  • Stock Windows 2003 media does not include video drivers or network drivers for the FX160 (Broadcom NetXTreme 57XX).
  • Dell’s support site doesn’t have the most recent drivers for the Broadcom.
  • It’s virtually impossible to find a 6″ SATA extension connector, either for data, power, or both. I was finally able to find a power extension, but used a standard SATA cable to connect to the other SATA port on the motherboard.

The SSD I used for this is an OCZ Agility 3, 120GB. Disk performance on large writes is almost 100MB/sec, which is about twice as fast as my 7200RPM spindle drive in my laptop. Windows performs very well with 4GB, a SSD, and a 1.6GHz Atom processor.

The next step was to configure the clients to update from the server for testing. I still have one of the Asus netbooks that we deployed to Haiti in a previous trip. This is where I discovered that Windows Home and Windows Starter don’t include the policy editor (gpedit.msc) that I’m used to finding on Pro/Enterprise/Ultimate versions of windows. This is understandable, your average home user doesn’t (and shouldn’t) normally jack with system policy. Fortunately, all the policy editor does is manipulate registry keys, and the process of configuring Windows Update via the registry is well documented. This actually simplifies things, since all I have to do is create a .reg file that I can import on all the target machines.

Next post: Installing Squid. Not content to use this box for mere update caching, we’re gonna have it be our web proxy as well.

Configuring Perl for ASSP on Debian

Quick and dirty apt-get string to install all the requisite perl modules (and associated dependencies) for ASSP on Debian:

apt-get install libcompress-zlib-perl libdigest-md5-file-perl libdigest-sha1-perl libemail-valid-perl libemail-send-perl libemail-mime-perl libfile-readbackwards-perl libclamav-client-perl libweb-simple-perl libmail-spf-perl libmail-srs-perl libnet-cidr-lite-perl libnet-dns-perl libnet-ldap-perl libnet-smtp-server-perl libunix-syslog-perl

Veeam’s Next Big Thing

VeeamHyper-VIt’s official – Veeam is announcing this morning that version 6 of their award-winning backup/replication software will support Microsoft’s Hyper-V virtualization hypervisor. The new version is due out later this year.

What’s Cool about Veeam and Hyper-V

Veeam is once again delivering IT magic by building their own Changed Block Tracking functionality into Hyper-V for some of the highly efficient backup and replication that Veeam is known for. This is going to go a long way toward bringing Microsoft virtualization up to par with VMware. Also included are file-level restore and virtual lab provisioning, as well as SCOM integration.

For non-profits, this is potentially huge, since it brings advanced backup capabilities to the hypervisor that’s included with Windows Server. VMWare is great technology, but for SMB and non-profits, VMWare’s pricing point is painful. When non-profit/education customers can get Windows Datacenter licenses for around $300 a socket (which includes Hyper-V!), suddenly VMWare looks really painful, even after educational discount.

What’s still missing

The initial release will not include Veeam’s U-AIR capability, but they’re hard at work to bring that capability online.

It also lacks the ability to back up/replicate across virtualization platforms, but that’s to be expected.

Veeam hasn’t yet announced pricing/licensing details. What I’d really like to see from Veeam is a per-socket license that is platform-independent.

If you haven’t yet experienced the awesomeness that is Veeam, give the folks at Mirazon a call. Those guys know Veeam up and down and backwards.

Veeam’s Rick Vanover has more at his blog.